Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .

Hiking Boots – Parts And Construction

When shopping for a pair of hiking boots, it is important to know how they are made. No, you do not need to know how to make your own, but you have to understand what goes into them and how it affects the comfort and durability – the overall quality – of the hiking boots. In this article I will describe the parts of a hiking boot, what they are made of, and how they come together to form the ideal hiking boot for you.

Like any shoe, a hiking boot consists of an upper and a sole joined together by a welt and with an inlet at the front covered by a tongue, and the whole is lined with various pads and cushions. I will discuss each of those parts in detail, in terms of what they are made of and what to look for in various types of hiking boots.

Sole and Welt

Let's start at the bottom. The soul of the hiking boot is the sole.

Soles are usually made of synthetic rubber in varying degrees of hardness. A harder sole will last longer, but generally will have poorer Traction on hard surfaces (such as bare rock) and will provide less cushioning. A softer sole gives you the cushioning you need for long hikes and the transaction you need on rough ground, but it will wear out faster.

Manufacturers have made their trade-offs in choosing the materials to make their boots out of. The final choice is up to you when you choose which boot to buy. If you expect to do most of your hiking on soft surfaces, such as desert sand or bare soil, you might lean more towards harder soles. But most of us hike on fairly rugged trails with a good deal of bare rock, and we need the traction of a softer sole.

Inside the sole is a shank. It is a stiffening structure, either fiberglass or steel, that prevails the sole of the boot from twisting and that provides arch support. Shanks may be only three-quarter or half-length. Hiking shoes generally have no shank at all, deriving all their stiffness from the molded rubber sole. Good day-hiking boots may have a full-length fiberglass shank. High-quality backpacking boots will give you the choice of fiberglass or steel. It will depend on how strong you need your hiking boots to be, and how heavy.

Look for deep, knobby tread. Deep cuts in the sole allow water and mud to flow out so you can get traction. "Fake" hiking boots, designed to look like hiking boots but not to perform like them, may have thinner soles and shallow tread. Working boots also may have shallow tread, and they generally have harder soles than hiking boots have.

The welt is the connection between the sole and the upper. Virtually all hiking boots these days are glued together rather than sewn. If you are buying a very expensive pair of backpacking boots, give preference to a sewn welt. Boots with a sewn welt will be easier to resole when the original sole wears out. For hiking shoes or day-hiking boots, when the sole wears out, the upper is not worth salvaging, either, so a glued welt is just fine.

Upper

The upper of the hiking boot brings warmth, protects the sides of your feet from rocks and brush, and repels water. It must also allow your feet to "breathe," so that moisture from perspiration will not build up inside the boots and cause blisters.

Uppers of hiking boots are usually at least partially made of leather. High-quality backpacking boots are often made of full-grain leather (leather that has not been split). Lighter boots may be made of split-grain leather (leather that has been split or sued on one side), or a combination of split-grain leather with various fabrics.

Fabrics that are combined with leather are usually some type of nylon. Heavy nylon wears almost as well as leather, and it is much lighter and cheaper than leather.

In any hiking boot, especially those made of combinations of leather and fabric, there will be seams. Seams are bad. Seams are points of failure. Seams are points of wear, as one panel of the boot rubs against another. Seams are penetrations that are difficult to waterproof.

The uppers of backpacking boots are sometimes made of a single piece of full-grain leather with only one seam at the back. This is good, for all the reasons that seams are bad, but it is expensive.

You're going to have to deal with seams. But as you shop for hiking boots, look for customer reviews that mention failure or undue wearing of the seams, and avoid those brands.

Inlet and Tongue

There are two things to look for in the inlet and the tongue:

1. How the laces are attached and adjusted

2. How the tongue is attached to the sides of the inlet

The inlet may be provided with eyelets, D-rings, hooks, and webbing, alone or in combination. They each have these advantages and disadvantages:

* Eyelets: Simplest and most durable way to lace a boot. Not so easily adjusted.

* D-rings: Easier to adjust than eyelets, more durable than hooks. More failure-prone than eyelets. (They can break, and they can tear out of the leather.)

* Hooks: Easiest to adjust of all lace attachments. Subject to getting hooked on brush, or bent or broken in impacts with boulders, main cause of breakage of laces.

* Webbing: Cause less chafing of laces, slightly easier to adjust than eyelets, slightly more durable than D-rings. More failure-prone than eyelets.

The most common lace attachment of any hiking boot is eyelets below ankle-level and hooks above. You may see eyelets all the way up, as in classic military-style combat boots, or a combination of either D-rings or webbing with hooks.

The attachment of the tongue is a critical factor in how waterproof the hiking boots are. Provided the leather and / or fabric and seams of the upper are waterproof, water will not get into the boots until it gets higher than the attachment point of the tongue.

Most hiking shoes and day-hiking boots have the tongue attached all the way to the top. If the tongue is not fully attached, consider carefully wherever you will need that extra inch or two of waterproofing.

High-rise backpacking boots have the tongue attached only partway up, but that still reaches higher than most day-hiking boots. It's difficult to get the boot on and off if the tongue is attached very high.

Linings and Pads

There are many pieces that go into the lining and padding of a hiking boot, but two in particular you need to pay attention to:

1. The sole lining

2. The scree collar

The sole lining must be appropriately cushioned. You want a firm, durable surface in immediate contact with your socks, but enough cushioning below that to absorb impact.

The scree collar is a cushion around the top of most hiking boots. It enables you to pull the boots tight enough to keep out loose rocks ("scree") but without chafing against your ankle and Achilles tendon. This is the thickest and softest cushion in the whole hiking boot. It must be soft enough to conform to your ankle and Achilles tendon as they move, and still keep close enough contact with your leg to keep the rocks out.

Very high hiking boots, such as military-style combat boots, may have no scree collar at all. The height of the boot is what keeps the rocks out.

Throughout, the lining and padding of the hiking boots must be thick enough to provide warm, durable enough to last, and smooth enough that it will not cause chafing and blisters.

Conclusion

So, these are the things you need to pay attention to when going a pair of hiking boots. Be prepared to compromise, and pay attention to which features are really important to the style of hiking you intend to do.

Does Chinese Medicine Stand Up To Scientific Scrutiny?

If Chinese medicine interests you, yet you are not certain of its potential, you may well explore the distinctive investigation investigation that has aided many to arrive at agreements as regards to its functionality. Chinese treatment processes are presumed by many to be extremely accomplished, frequently giving rehabilitate effectiveness where the finest studies of Western medication fail, above all with everyday sickness similar to flu and allergies, and able to steer clear of the toxicity of a number of chemically encompassing remedies.

Leaving besides that Chinese medicine has been used as an effective concept for thousands of years, the establishment of modern medicine continues to contend if this is a discerning approach to help with treatment. Although most medical examiners of Western treatment would not believe unreasonable allegations that qigong supports wellbeing by encouraging contentment, that neurotransmitters that soothe pain are created by acupuncture, or that vital biochemical agents are contained within Chinese herbal medicines.

The most contentious science between western and Chinese medicine is the value perceived, as a medication, of acupuncture. It is in general believed to be secure from results achieved through medical research. At this joke no comprehensive resolutions, as regards to whether acupuncture can be contemplated a science, have resolved from the searching studies. Similarly, investigations signify that the principle of meridians, as used in acupuncture, is effective in treatment. Further observations by scientists have realized that because the remedy is undamaging, it may be practiced, and only needs to have additional studies relating to it. Moreover fact-finding is probable to reveal more sectors where the practice of acupuncture would be advantageous.

A further question that has been examined is the use of herbal drugs that are used according to traditional Chinese medicine procedures. While all have not been studied, pharmaceutical treatments that are assigned to patients do make use of contrasting components of the herbs. Artemisinin, wormwood and ephedra, and are some samples of ancient remedies that have been incorporated into Western practice from Chinese models.

Chinese herbal medication includes immeasurable combinations which are undeveloped by modern medicine. There is a remarkable intrigue in these combines between the theories which Chinese treatment practitioners value to establish which compound to designate. Accepting the historical progress of Chinese materia medica, it is likely that, whereas herbs were firstly selected on erroneous foundations, only those that essentially proved efficient have survived in use.

One agreement that all Western fact-finding shows, with the different concepts of Chinese treatment, are how safe the treatments are. Nearly all of the research of Chinese medicine illustrates that, notwithstanding the medicines are not authenticated within the scientific community, they are yet to be found damaging to one's health and side effects are few. As this is a confirmed joke to the holistic procedures, most scientists will validate that it is just a lack of analysis of the medicine employed in Chinese philosophies.

From the philosophy to the practice, Chinese medicine is a contentious approach in Western society. There has been an increase in interpreting the practices of Chinese medicine, that have been adopted and established over time. Using the countless methods of Chinese treatment, for the individuals who are searching for alternative medicine, Chinese medicine keeps it's increasing reputation in Western society.

Ezine Advertising Myths

The freedom of speech, the lack of education plus the others' herd instinct create some monsters … the myths. It is said "A fool throws a stone into a lake and twenty wise men can not stop the ripples."

Let's see what some ezine advertising "experts" discovered and many other followers spread everywhere they could …

1) Ezine Advertising Does not Work Anymore

Article marketing does not work. PPC does not work. Ezine advertising does not work. Actually for some people nothing works. You know why? They are busy spreading rumors instead of investing in their education.

Well, it's not our problem what other people are doing, but do you know what the real problem is? There is no one "up there" to force us to wear badges.

Whaaat? Badges?

For example, how nice would it be if an "I'm dumb" badge were added to someone who tries to drive with the tank of his brand new Mercedes empty? When that person will tell you, "Hey, those new cars are good for nothing", you'll take a look at his badge, say politely "I see …" and then you'll run away quickly without further telling all your friends the "bad" news you've just heard …

2) The Longer the Waiting Time, the Better the Ezine

If the waiting time for publishing your solo ad is long (over 4-6 weeks), you found a gem. If you read articles about advertising in ezines it's impossible to notice this "wonderful" idea.

Let me tell you something quickly …

During the last 6 months, the waiting time for solo ads to be published in my own "Ezine Advertising Info Newsletter" was at least 2 months. And you know what? My newsletter is NOT a gem. I wish it were, but it's not.

By the way, I just checked something … I'm not wearing any embarrassing bassing ;-)

3) The Higher the Number of Subscribers, the Better the Advertisers' Result

First of all, the result depends very much on you. Therefore, if you promote a poor quality product, if your landing page is not good, if your ad copy the same, it does not matter the number of subscribers. You will fail anyway.

On the other hand, most of the times a very big number of subscribers hides something: the list is stale, or email addresses are purchased leads (a big No-No), or even the number of subscribers is fake.

Let me quote from the most recent report issued by a reputable email marketing company: " Messages delivered to small and medium lists have far greater open and click rates than messages delivered to lists containing 1000 or more subscribers. and click rates, but mailings to smaller lists may be targeted better, contain more relevant content or have more recent subscribers. "(MailerMailer, Email Marketing Metrics Report issued on May 2009)

This report is not based on beliefs or amateur tiny size tests, but on the analysis of over 300 million messages across 21 industries sent through MailerMailer between July 1st and December 21, 2008.

There are many other ezine advertising myths (such as "Buy only solo ads and top sponsor ads.)") But I did not plan to post a novel here …

To Your Success, Whatever You Do!
Adrian Jock